Chloral Hydrate has been used in human and veterinary medicine as a sedative and hypnotic drug since the mid-19th century. Aquachloral effects are primarily caused by its active metabolite trichloroethanol. Chloral Hydrate is primarily a hypnotic and has little or no analgesic effect. In candidates for surgery, it is a satisfactory preoperative sedative that allays anxiety and induces sleep without depressing respiratory or cough reflexes. In postoperative care and control of pain, it is a valuable adjunct to opiates and analgesics.
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Chloral Hydrate is a pure sedative-hypnotic agent without analgesic properties. When administered orally, the average time to peak sedation is approximately 30 minutes, with a recovery time of an additional 1 to 2 hours. Residual motor imbalance and agitation may persist for several hours beyond this.5 Rectal administration is erratically absorbed and therefore not recommended. Chloral Hydrate is widely used as a sedative to facilitate nonpainful diagnostic procedures such as electroencephalography3 and computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Pentobarbital IV appears to be more effective for the latter indication than Aquachloral, although many centers prefer Aquachloral in younger children (e.g., <18 months) simply to avoid the need for IV access.
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Chloral Hydrate has been implicated in various drug interactions. As one might expect, Aquachloral produces increased CNS depression when administered with other sedatives. The therapeutic advantage of this drug interaction is that it allows practitioners to decrease the dose of both CNS depressants and limit the side effects of the individual drugs. This is the rationale for a multidrug technique for pediatric sedation using Aquachloral, meperidine, and hydroxyzine in combination. Similarly, nitrous oxide administration in conjunction with chloral hydrate deepens the level of sedation.
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CAS 302-17-0; Trichloracetaldehydhydrat; Chloralmonohydrat; Novochlorhydrat; Trichloracetaldehydmonohydrat; Аквахлорал; Хлорал; Гидрат трихлорацетальдегида; Тосыл; Моногидрат хлора; Хлоралдурат; Фалдрон; Ново-хлоргидрат; Сомнос; Моногидрат трихлорацетальдегида; Hidrato de tricloroacetaldehído; Monohidrato de cloral; Novoclorhidrato; Tricloroacetaldehído monohidrato; Aquachloral; Chloralum; Somnote; Trichloroacetaldehyde hydrate; Noctec; Tosyl; Chloral monohydrate; Chloraldurat; Phaldrone; Novo-Chlorhydrate; Somnos; Trichloroacetaldehyde monohydrate